Publications

APC36

Cost-benefit analysis of NOx control for ships in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea

The analyses show that a NOx levy and fund system would be a cost-effective complement to NECAs and it would ensure much needed faster and further emission reductions.
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Policy brief

Paths to a sustainable agricultural system

Pathways to a Nordic agricultural and food system with reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. A policy brief financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers.
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APC 35

A 1.5 target is needed to save the Baltic Sea

Effects of global temperature increases on the biodiversity of the Baltic Sea
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APC 33

Carbon Capture and Storage in Norway, 2nd edition

The Norwegian interest in CCS depends largely on the oil and gas sector.
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Short paper on the UNFCCC Structured Expert Dialogue

Short paper on the UNFCCC Structured Expert Dialogue on the 2013-2015 Review, with a particular focus on the 1.5°C target.
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APC 32

Carbon Capture and Storage in Norway – The moon landing that failed

The Norwegian interest in CCS depends largely on the oil and gas sector.
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12 Factsheets on Air Pollution

Gasping for Air

Twelve factsheets on agriculture, climate, cultural heritage, domestic heating, economy, ecosystems, health, industry, non-roadmachine, road vehicles, shipping and solvents.
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APC 28

Lost hopes for CCS – added urgency for renewable energy

Commercial carbon capture and storage technologies will not be widely available in the foreseeable future. 
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APC 27

70% less by early 2020’s – CO2 reduction in the Nordic-Baltic Region

A 70 per cent cut in CO2 emissions by 2020 since 1990, and 95 percent by 2030 in the Nordic-Baltic region is feasible, using known technology and not exceeding reasonable costs.
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Briefing

Solar power from Sahara for fossil-free Europe

Solar electricity from the Sahara could supply Europe with 15 per cent of its electricity by 2050, at a price tag of 400 billion euros.
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Brochure

For Clean Air Everywhere: what can be done in our cities to decrease air pollution?

A short guide to the effects of major air pollutants on human health, recommended guidelines and current EU standards. Followed by twelve practical steps for cleaner air in our cities.
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Briefing

Cutting SOX emissions from shipping

A briefing on the European Commission's proposal to revise the "sulphur in fuels directive" by aligning EU standards for shipping fuel with those adopted in 2008 by the International Maritime Organisation.
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Air and the Environment

This book is about a few hundredths of a percent of the air we breathe – for that is the total extent of what we call air pollution. Even so, the effects on people and nature are very tangible: the climate is changing, rare species of animals and plants are under threat, lakes are becoming acidified, buildings are eroding, and so on.
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APC 26

To manage or to protect?

The fate of the vast boreal forest belt of the northern hemisphere is crucial for global climate. This report looks into our possibilities to protect and manage these forests for climate mitigation.
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APC 25

Boreal Forest and Climate Change - regional perspectives.

The boreal forest is the largest continuous land ecosystem in the world, covering about 14 per cent of the earth´s vegetated surface.
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APC 24

Market-based instrument for NOx abatement in the Balitc Sea

Annual ship emissions of nitrogen oxides in the Baltic Sea could be cut by around 270,000 tons in 2015 by the application of an emissions charge, according to a new report. Published jointly by AirClim, T&E and EEB.  
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APC 23

Boreal Forest and Climate Change

A key finding of this study, based on a review of recent scientific literature, is that the boreal forests will not be able to respond to global warming by migrating northwards. Massive forest dieback is a more likely scenario. Published in cooperation with Taiga Rescue Network.
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APC 22

Carbon Capture and Storage in Norway

Strong economic and political motives, combined with a partly positive and partly silent NGO community, has contributed strongly to the present powerful commitment towards the use of CCS in Norway.
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APC 21

Last Gasp of the Coal Industry

This report takes a look behind the bright vision of carbon capture and storage (CCS) given by proponents of this technology. It is not intended to damn CCS but is an appeal for wise decision-making.
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APC 20

The Costs and Health Benefits of Reducing Emissions from Power Stations in Europe

Concludes that the average benefit-to-cost ratio for measures at the 100 most polluting plants in Europe is 3.4, i.e. the estimated health benefits are 3.4 times bigger than the estimated emission control costs.
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APC 19

Health Impacts of Emissions from Large Point Sources

This study combines the health impact assessment methodology used by EU's CAFE programme with an emissions database for large point sources, to assess health damage linked to emissions on a plant by plant basis.
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Briefing

Supergrid paves the way for wind power expansion

A supergrid connecting Scandinavia and large parts of western Europe may pave the way for an even faster expansion of off-shore windpower.
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Factsheet

Welcome to the world at +4°C

A new map published by the British government presents the likely effects of global warming above the +2° goal - a future that seems impossible to cope with.
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Factsheet

Boreal forest dieback may cause runaway warming

The boreal forests, one of the largest carbon stocks on earth, will not be able to respond to global warming by migrating northwards. Massive forest dieback, causing runaway warming, is a more likely scenario.
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Briefing

Sustainable Energy Scenarios in Sweden

Sweden can cut greenhouse gas emissions by well over 50 per cent by the year 2020, if results of recent studies for 2050 are “telescoped” into the shorter timeframe, and if the consequences of exported electricity and biomass are accounted for. This could take place without CCS and while much of the nuclear capacity is decommissioned.
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Briefing

Economic Instruments in Swedish Climate Policy – a success story

In 1991 Sweden introduced a substantial CO2 tax. Though it had many exemptions and was subject to many changes over the years, it did cut emissions. During that time, Sweden also phased out two nuclear reactors.
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Briefing

The Swedish Kyoto target and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions 1990 to 2012

The EU burden sharing agreement in 1997–98 allowed Sweden a plus four per cent GHG target for 1990–2010. This was motivated by Sweden’s supposed plans to phase out nuclear power by 2010, plans that were already abandoned.
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Factsheet

The CAFE programme and the thematic strategy on air pollution

Current levels of air pollution cause severe health impacts in the European Union, resulting in some 370,000 premature deaths each year, increased hospital admissions, extra medication, and millions of lost working days.
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Factsheet

Particles and health

Recent research indicates that fine particles (PM2.5) in the air in the year 2000 caused an average shortening of statistical life expectancy of more than eight months in the EU, equivalent to 3.6 million life years lost annually. This means that these particles have the most serious effects on people’s health of all air pollutants.
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APC 18

Status and Impacts of the German Lignite Industry

This study includes a historical treatment of German lignite use and discusses many of the hidden costs involved. Special consideration is paid to eastern Germany.
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Briefing

Cost-benefit analysis of using 0.5% marine heavy fuel oil in European sea areas

A lowering of the sulphur content of marine heavy fuel oil to 0.5 per cent would reduce SO2 emissions from international shipping around Europe by more than three quarters by 2010. The benefits of such a measure clearly outweigh the costs, according to this study.
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Factsheet

Renewable energy in the EU

Around 20 per cent of our global energy supply comes from renewable sources. In the EU the proportion is six per cent.
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APC 17

Atmospheric emissions from large point sources in Europe

The report identifies and lists the 200 largest emitters of sulphur dioxide and the 200 “best” fossil-fuelled power stations, in terms of SO2 and NOx emissions per useful output.
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Briefing

Air pollution from ships

A briefing document by the European Environmental Bureau (EEB), European Federation for Transport and Environment (T&E), Seas At Risk (SAR), and the Swedish NGO Secretariat on Acid Rain.
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Factsheet

EU emission standards for light and heavy road vehicles

Emission requirements for light road vehicles have existed in the EU since the early 1970s, while the first requirements for heavy vehicles came in at the end of the 1980s.
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Factsheet

EU directive on national emission ceilings (NEC)

Directive 2001/81/EC on national emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutants.
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Factsheet

EU on climate change: Targets, strategies and legislation

The EU was among the most active in the negotiations leading to the Kyoto protocol to the climate convention, urging the industrialized countries to reduce their emissions of the main greenhouse gases – carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide – by 15 per cent between 1990 and 2010, with an interim target of 7.5 per cent for 2005.
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APC 16

To phase out coal

The structure of the coal industry, its environmental effects, and the possibilities of phasing out the use of coal.
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Factsheet

The Kyoto Protocol

– What just is in it –
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Factsheet

The Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

The 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution was the first multilateral treaty for dealing with air pollutants.  
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Factsheet

EU legislation on air pollution

Up to the early nineties, EU policy in regard to air pollution had tended to be fragmented. Such directives as existed were either those setting air-quality standards for a few selected air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, or others to control emissions from certain defined sources such as large power plants and road vehicles.
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Factsheet

EU legislation on air pollution

Up to the early nineties, EU policy in regard to air pollution had tended to be fragmented. Such directives as existed were either those setting air-quality standards for a few selected air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, or others to control emissions from certain defined sources such as large power plants and road vehicles.
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Factsheet

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

The IPCC’s Third Assessment Report provides the best scientific information to date as to how the emissions of greenhouse gases are affecting our climate. Here is a brief description of the IPCC and its most recent findings.
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Factsheet

Air pollution and health

Although the concentrations of air pollutants are in general on the way down in Europe, the problems remain considerable – especially as regards ground-level ozone and small particles. In some parts, too, the situation continues to become worse. In the following is a digest of the chief effects, causes, and permissible limits to the concentrations of the most pervasive pollutants.
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APC 15

The worst and the best - Atmospheric emissions from large point sources in Europe

The report identifies and lists the 100 largest emitters of sulphur dioxide in Europe, as well as the 200 "best" fossil-fuelled power stations.
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APC 14

An Alternative Energy Scenario for the European Union

Background report to the study above, describing the underlying alternative low-CO2 energy scenario.
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APC 13

Getting more for less

A study showing that the estimated annual costs for achieving the interim environmental quality targets of the proposed national emission ceilings (NECs) directive can be reduced by nearly two thirds. This result is obtained by using an low-CO2 energy scenario as the basis for the cost estimation.
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APC 11

Economic instruments for reducing emissions from sea transport

In comparison with additional measures taken on land, reducing emissions at sea would be very cost effective. This report presents the problems, as well as the technical and political opportunities to solve them.
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APC 10

Acidification in 2010 – An assessment of the situation after ten years

Study examining the outlook in the light of various assumptions concerning the trend in emissions. Concludes that acidification is likely to remain a threat even if all the proposed measures for reducing them are actually carried out.
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Factsheet

Critical loads

In order to determine the extent to which the emissions of air pollutants will have to be reduced, if the environment is to be protected from damage, it is essential to know the limits to nature's tolerance.
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APC9

Envronmental space – as appllied to acidifying air pollutants

The concept of environmental space makes it possible to show what reducing emissions will mean in terms of the individual.
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APC8

Better together

Discussion paper on common Nordic-Baltic energy infrastructure and policy issues from an environmentalist's point of view.
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Factsheet

Sulphur

The 100 worst emitters in Europe.
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APC2

The "Black" Triangle

The probelms of air pollution and some proposals for abatement strategies in the so-called Black Trinagle region of East-Central Europe.
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Factsheet

The UN ECE convention

Air pollution treaty.
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Factsheet

Critical loads

The limits of tollerance.
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Factsheet

Forest damage in Europe

The 100 worst emitters in Europe.
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